Rolling Stones gather to plot 50th anniversary bash
In October 1961, nineteen-year-old father of three, Lewis Brian Hopkin-Jones (born 28 February 1942), and a fellow blues enthusiast, Dick Hattrell, attended a concert by Chris Barber's Jazz Band in their sleepy, conservative hometown, Cheltenham. During the interval, one of the members of Barber's band - the guitarist Alexis Korner - gave his own blues performance. Such was the purist attitude amongst the small community of blues cognoscenti in Britain, that Korner and his previous outfit had been sacked from their regular gig at the London Blues and Barrelhouse Club when they dared to introduce electric amplification. According to Barber, ever the supporter of fresh ideas (Bill Wyman calls him "virtually a founding father" of the British rock scene), Korner was the only British blues player who was amplifying his guitar at the time. Brian Jones was blown away by what he saw. Already known around town as a bit of a lad and a talented guitarist, he had no trouble being admitted backstage to speak to Korner and exchange telephone numbers. Two months later, Brian descended on the Korners in London, staying several days and spending most of his time perusing the older man's record collection. Discovering, amongst others, Elmore James, Howlin' Wolf and Robert Johnson, he purchased an electric guitar as soon as he was back in Cheltenham and began to practise with an obsession matched only by his pursuit of female companionship. Indeed, the influence he would later exert over the nascent Rolling Stones might not just have been in terms of music, but also in terms of attitude and lifestyle.
Brian Jones's father, Lewis, was an aeronautical engineer and his mother, Louisa, a piano teacher. He grew up in the quiet environment of a comfortably well-off family, whose attitudes had been shaped by memories of the War itself and the uncertainty of the post-War austerity years. He was clever, sporty and popular in school. Aged fifteen, he joined a skiffle band, playing washboard. He liked trad jazz -- aka Dixieland, the dominant style of dance music in Britain at the time -- until he discovered the saxophonist Charlie Parker. And then, Brian Jones went off the rails in spectacular fashion. Discipline became an anathema to him. Refusing to go to university, he was sacked from a long series of jobs, usually for helping himself to the contents of the till. Friends and acquaintances despaired of him, so wantonly did he abuse their generosity. He even featured in the national press as an example for the wayward and amoral ways of modern youth, when one of his underage lovers became pregnant. If Brian Jones cared, he certainly didn't show it, and he most definitely didn't change his ways. According to perspective he was a damned nuisance, a peril to society, or a charming, modern-day libertine.
Gallery: Stones in pictures
On the morning of 17 October 1961, eighteen-year-old Mick Jagger (born 26 July 1943) was waiting on the platform of Dartford railway station for the train to take him the 16 miles into central London, where he was a mediocre student at the highly respected London School of Economics. He was clutching a Chuck Berry album, Rockin' at the Hops, and The Best of Muddy Waters under his arm. Shortly afterwards, seventeen- year-old Keith Richards (born 18 December 1943) arrived on the same platform on his way to Sidcup Art College. The two young men recognised each other from primary school. Studying the records on the train, Richards became even more envious of Jagger when he heard that he had actually seen Buddy Holly live in concert.
Time: Celebrating 50 years since they "start it up"
Two years earlier, Keith had received his first guitar as a gift from his mother. He was the only child of Bert, a factory worker, and Doris, whose mother had been the mayor of the Municipal Borough of Walthamstow (which is now part of the London Borough of Waltham Forest). Keith was a loner who was often bullied and the older he got, the more difficult he found it to accept the teachers' authoritarian rule. Music ran on his mother's side of the family; his grandfather had toured Britain with a big band, Gus Dupree and his Boys. Bert, on the other hand, was not keen on his son's growing interest in the guitar, especially after he was expelled from school for a variety of misdemeanors. As in school, two different worlds came up against each other in the family. "My parents were brought up in the Depression, when if you got something, you just kept it and you held it and that was it." Richards wrote in his autobiography. "Bert was the most unambitious man in the world. Meanwhile, I was a kid and I didn't even know what ambition meant. I just felt the constraints. The society and everything I was growing up in was just too small for me." By the time Richards arrived at art college -- it was the inspired idea of an art teacher to send him there -- he was deeply engrossed in music. Having started with Little Richard and Elvis, he had moved on via Buddy Holly, Eddie Cochran, Marty Wilde and the like, to Muddy Waters, Howlin' Wolf and Lightnin' Hopkins. British art colleges, then as now, have always been a fertile breeding ground for musical ideas. It was the one side of his education Keith relished.
Jagger credits Stones' success to luck, hard work, fans
Michael Philip Jagger was the son of Joe Jagger, a physical education instructor at a teacher training college, and Eva, a hairdresser who had grown up in Australia. Everyone called him Mike until some way into his studies at the LSE when, in a sudden change of style, he swapped his grey suit for sharp beatnik attire and insisted on being called the rather more working class-sounding "Mick". His life was comfortable. He excelled at cricket, but music was his main interest. A constant flow of friends came and went at the Jaggers' house to listen to skiffle, blues and rock'n'roll records with Mick and his brother Chris, and to attempt playing the songs themselves. In July 1961, Mick passed his A-level exams with respectable results and won a scholarship to the LSE, where he started after the summer break.
Britain after World War 2 was a dour place. When the author J.G. Ballard - who had spent several teenage years under the most horrendous conditions in an internment camp in Shanghai -returned to the UK, he observed that looking at the people around him, it was impossible to believe that they had won the war: "They behaved like a defeated population." Well into the 1950s, food rationing deprived British kitchens of a great many ingredients that would have brought actual pleasure to the plate, especially sugar, dairy products and meat (British cheese production only began to recover from the blow in the late 1970s). On a political level, the government's disastrous handling of the Suez crisis in 1956, severely damaged Britain's standing as a world power. This required a serious and ego-denting re-evaluation of the country's historical as well as present-day role at the head of a colonial empire. The Conservative Prime Minister Anthony Eden had to resign as a consequence of his handling of the situation. Like many other Members of Parliament, he came from an old, rich, landed gentry family. His failure badly undermined the credibility of the upper class that was dominating not just politics in Britain, but many other aspects of public life as well, including the media. The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND), formed in 1957, was perhaps the most important movement to give dissenting voices a new focus. A group of writers from literature and theatre, dubbed "Angry Young Men", expressed a growing sense of revolt against the old order. The group included John Osborne, Kingsley Amis, Arnold Wesker and Harold Pinter, amongst others. In Soho, London's red light and party quarter, a bohemian and often gay crowd of painters, writers and musicians -- amongst them Francis Bacon, Lucian Freud, Daniel Farson and Colin MacInnes -- delighted in scandalising conventional mores with their hedonistic antics.
Watch: Jagger on his critics
Music, too, offered a popular platform for protest. The folk scene around the socialist poet and songwriter Ewan MacColl, in particular, was a hive of political activity. And then there were the Teddy Boys. For the first time, British teenagers followed the example of US teenagers and banded together, forging their own group identity with the aid of clothes, music and a hearty desire to rile everyone else. The Teds were the first British rock'n'roll fans.
When the film Blackboard Jungle (featuring the music of Bill Haley & His Comets) reached London in 1956, a whole year after its release in the United States, riots broke out in the cinemas. The young Mick Jagger saw the film six times in Dartford. When the next rock'n'roll film, Rock Around the Clock, appeared another year later, Dartford Council promptly banned it - so successful was this raucous import from America in offending regular British sensibilities. The Teds, meanwhile, had already found their own way of getting up the noses of the middle and upper classes. They had appropriated the Edwardian clothing style that was extremely popular amongst the foppish and rich male students from private schools, joyously exaggerated its most obvious features (tapered trousers, drape jackets, brocade waistcoats, brothel creepers) and combined it with the greasy quiff of the archetypal American rock'n'roller. A certain degree of gratuitous violence was part of the required behaviour. In the context of Britain's first race riots in London's Notting Hill area in 1958, Teds were implicated as ringleaders in attacks against a mostly West Indian populace, an ugly harbinger of things to come. In Liverpool, the police were therefore happy to tolerate the not so legal Casbah Coffee Club, which Mona Best, mother of original Beatles drummer Pete, had opened up in the basement of the vast family house. Thanks to a bunch of teenagers called The Quarrymen, as well as skiffle and Coca-Cola (then a total novelty in North West England), the Teds were bored no longer -- and whilst they were at the Casbah, there was no fighting in the streets.